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T. A. & Personality Traits.

 3.Transactional Analysis – Ego state: 

               Eric Berne (1964) developed a theory of human personality known as “Transactional Analysis” (TA). This theory provides significant insights into the nature of human behaviour and has been used effectively for improving the manners and etiquettes of people. The theory is simple to understand, and one can practice it in day-to-day life for bringing about effectiveness in human relations. The theory applies well in the home, in the organizations, or any social setting in this chapter we examine the basic principles of this theory and their application for bringing about managerial effectiveness.
             It is interesting to examine the basic structure of each one of these three behavioral programmes, how they are formed and what are their behavioral characteristics? 
The three behavioral programmes or ego states are:
(A) Parent
(B) Adult
(C) Child
(A) Parent Ego State:This behavioral programme is known as a Taught Concept of life and relates to the behaviour which is oriented towards other. The programmes is developed in early childhood when the child tries to emulate the behaviour of parents or parent figures such as grand-father, grand-mother, aunt etc, on in the modern day world even the T.V. could become a parent figures. Basic structure of this ego state gets formed primarily during the first five years in the life of the child. Subsequent changes in the structure of the ego state are rather slow.
            The child has an innate desire to emulate the behaviour of parents. It has the curiosity and the ability to learn fast. Child considers the father figures to be his role model and copies behaviour from him.
            Most of us must have observed the little child wearing oversized clothes of the parents, and making the exclamation "See; now I have become papa". Child tries to put his small sized feet into the shoes of the father hoping that they perfectly fit into his feet. The desire to become as big as father lies at the base of the development of the parent Ego state. As the child grows, it imitates the behaviour of parent figures and acts accordingly. Even subtle forms of behaviour are copied. Father did not leave a morsel of food in the plate, and child picks it up as a message to be followed. Father becomes critical, evaluative, and domineering and the child too starts behaving in similar manner. Child is made to touch the feet of elders, and this becomes child's usual behaviour in later years of life.
            Norms, values, beliefs and prejudices are learnt in childhood and they become a part of the Parent Ego state. The practice of un-touch- ability, treating people as high or low on the basis of caste, religion or region are the messages which get recorded in the Parent tape of human behaviour. Superstitious beliefs such as horse shoe being auspicious, never to travel in the northern direction on Tuesdays, are all given to the child from the father figures. Some of these messages could be functional in nature, others may be dysfunctional.
            Behaviour of parents may be put in two board categories (a) Critical Behaviour and (b) Nurturing or sympathetic behaviour. When parents become evaluative, critical or domineering in nature, the Critical Parent behavioral programme is developed. On the other hand, when parents sympathies or help others, the Nurturing Parent behavioral programme is developed.
Thus, the parent behavioral programme falls into two types, viz.
(a) Critical Parent (CP)
(b) Nurturing Parent (NP)
                        Of these could be either functional or dysfunctional. Some may do more harm, while others may be innocuous in character. Albert Einstein, the noted scientist, had a horse shoe hanging in his house; this probably did not do any damage. On the other hand, the parent message in India that people are high or low on the basis of the caste in which they are born, created problems in terms of human growth and development.
(B) Adult Ego State (A):The behavioral programme Known as "Adult Ego State" basis itself on the objective reality and is developed due to self-logic and analysis. Child discovers that the messages given by the parents do not work well in life or seem to be false also. Parents said that Muslims are dangerous, but Anil discovers in the school that his most reliable friend turns out to be not a Hindu, but one Mr. Zaidi who is a Muslim. So, the belief given by the parents gets a jolt and the child makes a revision in the message earlier recorded in the parent programme. Some of the parent messages are contradictory also. Father asks the son to be truthful and honest, but asks him to tell a lie to a visitor. Such behaviour sends wrong signals. Manipulation and chicanery become part of the behaviour.
            Adult ego state is analytical, evaluative and logical in nature. When the energy gets hooked on to this ego state, the person becomes reflective, wants to know, what the facts are, and tries to search for alternatives. People, who learn to switch over to this ego state whenever any behavioural problem arises, are quite often saved from a lot of trouble. Adult behaviour is a cool, calm and dispassionate response. This behavioural programme is also known as Thought Concept of life.
(C) Child Ego State: Child ego state is oriented towards the self. It is not based on logic and reasoning. It is a manifestation of the natural instincts of curiosity, playfulness, sadness or fear.
            Behavioural programme relating to Child ego state is formed on the basis of what is done to the child by the outside world as also on the basis of what is done to the child by the outside world as also on the basis of the behavioural traits given to an individual by the genetic code. The composition of Child Ego state is quite complicated. In simple terms, when one throws back, there are tears in the eyes; one gets sulky, explosive, whining, boisterous, or full of curiosity- the Child behavioural programme is in operation. This behavioural program is known as Felt Concept of life.
The four constituents of Child Ego state are:
(a) Natural Child
(b) Compliant Child
(c) Rebellious Child
(d) Little Professor
(a) Natural Child Ego State (NC):This is determined by the genetic code and lot more about this ego state remains enigmatic. Our understanding about the role of genetic code in behaviour is not perfect. Evidence is available from researches that behavioural characteristics such as assertiveness, shyness, impulsiveness and sociability may be genetically determined. Researches have tried to establish a linkage between genetic code and behaviour such as smoking, divorce etc. but these findings are not far from suspicion.
            The characteristic features of Child Ego state are creativity, curiosity, playfulness and institution, Normal level of warmth, anger, sadness, and fear are a part of the Natural Child. Expressions such as "A ha" I got it" "How great", "I want what I want", are indicative of Natural Child.
(b) Complaint Child Ego State (CC):This ego state represents submissive and obedient behaviour. One uses expression such as "Sir, May I" from this ego state. Children who are brutalized physically may develop excessive Complaint Child behaviour (some children can become Rebellious Children also due to brutalization). The problem with strong Complaint Child behaviour is that one loses assertiveness in behaviour develops inferiority complex and everybody takes him for a ride.
(c) Rebellious Child Ego State (RC):The essence of this ego state is the tendency to fight for one's rights and put up resistance. Children who are pampered and given freehand in childhood become rebellious children. When all the wishes of the children are granted in early childhood, Rebellious child behaviour is developed. Response from this ego state can solve as well as create problems in life. A boss having strong RC would punish the subordinates on slight provocation. A secretary with strong RC would assert for her rights and may ask for leave from duty irrespective of disruption caused in the work due to her absence and may, consequently, get fried from the job. A relative with strong RC would ask for larger share in the family property irrespective of what is legitimately due to him. Parents with strong RC punish the children and retard healthy growth of the child.
(d) Little Professor (LP):Little professor is also known as "Unschooled Wisdom" or "presence of mind". The source of this behaviour lies in the genetic code. Little Professor involves the use of natural wit and humour.
            This ego state plays its role in the functioning of all the remaining three components of Child Ego state that is Natural Child, Rebellious Child and Compliant Child. Anecdotes from the life of the famous characters Birbal and Tenalirama are good examples of Little Professor. Let me quote one event from the life of Mr. Hidayatullah, who was the Vice President of India. Mr. Nixon, President of USA visited India. Mr. Hidayatullah and Mr. Nixon were passing in a car through Rajpath in New Delhi. Thousands of people had lined up on both sides of the road. Mr. Nixon Said, "Have these people come to see you or me?" Mr. Hidayatullah said, "Sir, they have come to see neither of us, they are here to see the bullet proof car". 
            Little Professor is a very powerful constituent of human behaviour. Those who have it in abundance emerge winners in life. 
            We present below the characteristics of each one of the ego states with a view to develop a clear understanding about them.
Structure of Ego States in Human Personality 

Taught Concept                 Critical Parent                             "You"
Of life                                 Nurturing parent                       Orientation
Taught Concept                   Adult                                           "It"
Of life                                                                                  Orientation   
Felt Concept                       Natural Child                               "Self"
Of life                                 Complaint Child                        Orientation
                                          Rebellious Child

Ego State

Basic Features

Tone of Voice

Words used

Body Posture

Facial Expression

Inner Feelings

Critical Parent

Values Beliefs, Prejudices, Do's, Don'ts

Criticize, Admonish, Accuse.


Ought, Must.

Pointing finger


Teach a lesson





Have faith

Pat on back

Showing concern

Support & help


Fact  reasons, Analysis


How the problem is solved? What are the alternatives?

Learning toward

Alert eyes

To under standing, Open Mind



Creativity, Curiosity, intuition.


I got

Throwing up hands in joy, Jumping up


Joy, pan - Pleasure





Sir, May I

Bent neck

Down cast eyes

Respect, dependence.



Fight to Right


Why me?

Hands on hips

Quivering lips


This is nearly all about TRANSACTIONAL EGO STATE. This method is necessary for every human being. With this a human being knows about his thinking and behaving patterns. His mind feels the relaxation. Respect for himself and others automatically arises. Because you know the uniqueness of yourself and others. What are weakness and strengths of your personality and the other personalities around your circle?
                        John. L. HOLLAND gives the theory of personality depending on the traits of human being. As per trait in the human being, Holland divides the personalities in six categories. This theory is especially in the organizations for greater job satisfaction. It is required by the human being that he/she must in field, which suits to his/her personality. The level of satisfaction is increased so the relaxation is. When relaxation happens, then mind is in the process of growth, in the positive direction. Then the creativity in job would of higher level. These are six personality types are made from the analysis of 30 trait of the human being and this made six types of personality, which are explained as
(A) The realistic Type.
(B) The investigative Type.
(C) The Artistic type.
(D) The Social Type.
(E) The enterprising type.
(F) The conventional Type.
(A) The Realistic Type:  Possess good motor co-ordination and skills but lack verbal and interpersonal skills, feel somewhat uncomfortable in social settings, perceive themselves as mechanically inclined, prefer concrete to abstract problems, have conventional political and economic goals, rarely perform creatively in the arts or sciences but do like to build things with tools. Traits - Shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, and practical. Professions- Mechanic, drill press operator assembly-line worker, farmed, fish and wildlife specialist, tool designer, mechanic, engineer, electrician and crane operator.
(B) The investigative Type: A strong scientific orientation, usually task        oriented, introspective, and asocial prefer to think through rather than act out problems, have a great need to understand the physical world enjoy ambiguous tasks, prefer to work independently usually perceive yourself as lacking in persuasive abilities but confident of your scholarly and intellectual abilities have unconventional values and attitudes. Traits - Analytical, original, curious, independent. Professions- Biologist, economist, mathematician, news reporter, astronomer, biologist, chemist, technical writer, zoologist and psychologist.
(C) The Artistic Type: Prefer free unstructured situations with maximum opportunity for self expression, introspective and asocial but having less ego strength greater need for individual expression, greater tendency to impulsive behaviour creative, especially in artistic and musical media avoid highly structured problems or physical skills see themselves as original intuitive creative non conforming independent. Traits- Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, impractical. Professions- Painter musician, writer, interior decorator, Artist, author, composer, writer, musician stage director and symphony conductor.
(D) The Enterprising Type: Possessing verbal skills suite to selling domination and leading, are strong leaders, have a strong drive to attain organizational goals or economic gains, tend to avoid work situations requiring long periods of intellectual effort, prefer ambiguous social tasks a great concern for power, Status and leadership see themselves as aggressive, popular self, confident cheerful and sociable having high energy level. Traits- Self-confident, ambitious, energetic, domineering. Professions- Lawyer, real estate agent public relations specialist, small business manager, political company manager, real estate sales stock and bond sales, television producer. and retail merchandising.
(E) The Social Type: Sociable responsible humanistic often religious like to work in groups, possess good verbal and interpersonal skills avoid intellectual problem solving physical exertion and highly ordered social activities, prefer to solve problems through feelings and interpersonal manipulation of others enjoy activities that involve informing, curing developing or enlightening others perceive themselves as understanding idealistic and helpful. Traits- Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding. Professions-. Social worker, teacher counselor, clinical psychologist,  missionary, high school teacher, marriage counselor, and speech therapist.
 (F) The Conventional Type: Prefer well ordered environments prefer systematic verbal and numerical activities like conforming and subordinate roles, are effective at well structured tasks avoid ambiguous situations involving interpersonal relationships or physical skills obedient calm orderly and practical identify with power and value material possessions and status. Traits- Conforming, Carefulness efficient, practical, unimaginative, inflexible. Professions- Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, life clerk. Bank examiner, book keeper, clerical worker, financial analyst, quality control expert, statistician and traffic manager.
Lets us observe the table having personality, traits and their professions:
Personality Characteristics
Congruent Occupations
Realistic: Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination.
Investigative: Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding
Social : Prefer activities that involve helping and developing others
Conventional : Prefers rule regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities
Enterprising : Prefers verbal activities where there are opportunities to influence others and action power
Artistic : Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression
Shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, practical
Analytical, original, curious, independent
Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding
Conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, inflexible
Self-confident, ambitious, energetic, domineering
Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, impractical
Mechanic, drill press operator assembly-line worker, farme.
Biologist, economist, mathematician, news reporter
Social worker, teacher counselor, clinical psychologist
Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller life clerk
Lawyer, real estate agent public relations specialist, small business manager
Painter musician, writer, interior decorator.
Personality Type and the Main Traits in the Personality.
·       Realistic: Practical, Physical, Concrete, Hands-on, Machine, and Tool-oriented.
·       Investigative: Analytical, Intellectual, Scientific, Explorative, Thinker.
·       Artistic: Creative, Independent, Chaotic, Inventive, Media, Graphics, and Text.
·       Social: Cooperative, Supporting, Helping, Healing/Nurturing, Teaching.
·       Enterprising: Competitive Environments, Leadership, Persuading, Status.
·       Conventional: Detail-oriented, Organizing, Clerical.


               This Grid tells that a Conventional personality can be fit in the jobs of Enterprising and Realistic personality type jobs, but never fits in the jobs of artistic personality. This apply to every personality type that it can be fit in the personality types besides it, but never fit in diagonally opposite. One thing is to remember that the best suited is when gets job in his own personality type. This is the whole purpose of the grid.
              This is whole about the personality and the traits. Traits are the building blocks of personality. Traits are formed from the biological nurture and the nurturing of a child. This Holland method is used for the selection best suited profession for an individual. This is perfectly used in the whole world. Now a days, Some of the career councilors this method is used in INDIA also. This is a very good method.
This table shows the correlation between the Personality Type and Transactional Ego states. There is a six type of personality types and there are six type of ego states. lets observe:
Mother's Touch
Myself ME, & I
Ego states
Critical Parent
Nurturing Parent
Happy Child
Rebellious Child
Complaint Child
Personality Type
Identify with her world
Absorbed in my task
Tireless provider
Supporting others.
Take for granted
Time out
Associate with her needs
Appreciate  me
My best friend
Treat myself
Salute her achievements
Healthy foundations
Pearls of wisdom
Proud partner
Look goods, feel good
Fire her ambitions
Shared burden
Raising winners
Build a better future
Romance and intimacy
Improving myself
Fuel her fantasies
Roles reversed
Being cared for
Self sufficiency
I am boss
Hot stuff
Set myself free
               When these two methods are combined. Then it becomes a wonderful tool for the study of mind and personality. When the first method; elements, body type and food is also added in them, then this becomes a tremendously important tool for this humanity and for this planet. Then this tool has the ability to produce the Masters on this earth. For which this planet is waiting.


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